Thursday, December 12, 2019

Effects of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Mary

Question: Discuss about the Effects of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Mary. Answer: Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most challenging conditions in human life. Currently, people are worried about diseases like cancer because they are life threatening. Although cancer is a manageable condition, many people fail to have a stable mental, physical, and psychological state after its diagnosis. As a patient, Mary is in a similar position. After her diagnosis with breast cancer, Mary is likely to undergo through a difficult time because her cancerous condition will definitely subject her to mental, emotional, and psychological distresses. This paper presents a critical analysis of the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral impacts of breast cancer diagnosis on Mary. Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Impacts of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Mary Research has proven that many people fear cancer. When individuals are diagnosed with cancer, they become psychologically-tortured because of the misleading belief that cancer is a deadly disease that cannot be fully eradicated regardless of the efforts put. The diagnosis of Mary with breast cancer will affect her psychologically. Just like any other cancer patient, Mary will go through a very difficult time. When she discovers that she is suffering from breast cancer, Mary will have to be psychologically affected. The first thing that will come to her mind is that she is almost dying. Many people hold the view that once an individual is diagnosed with breast cancer; there are higher chances that it might result into their death. This is what Mary will be going through because he will imagine that her life will be prematurely terminated by the dreaded disease. However, this is unnecessary feeling that should not bother Mary because it is not true that her diagnosis will definitely translate into her early death. Breast cancer should not be equated to death because it is a manageable condition. Many people have survived breast cancer (Leontjevas, et al., 2013). She can still live for a very long time as long as she takes her situation positively and takes the necessary measures to manage her condition. Besides, Mary will have to be stressed because of the feeling that her cancerous condition will last forever. Just like any other ordinary patient, Mary believes that her diagnosis with breast cancer means that she will always suffer from the disease until she dies. She will be psychologically disturbed to imagine that she will live with cancer for the remainder of her life because it is a disease that keeps on recurring. Since Mary lives in the society, she must have witnessed how bothersome breast cancer has been in the life of her relatives, friends, colleagues or neighbors. However, this does not mean that she will also experience the same. Her case will be different because she has detected the condition during its initial stages (Canvin, Rugksa, Sinclair Burns, 2014). Meaning, she will not suffer like other people whose conditions were detected at advanced stages. Therefore, the patient does not need to be emotionally disturbed because of the feeling that it will be a permanen t condition. In addition, Mary will be emotionally disturbed because of the feeling of physical pain to be experienced due to her condition. Breast cancer is a disease that is associated with lots of physical pains. So, Marys diagnosis with the condition means that she will also have to endure the physical pains suffered by the cancer patients. This is the feeling that will subject the patient to psychological distress because she knows that when her time reaches, she will suffer a great deal. The physical pains can be caused by the wounds on the body. It is an unpleasant experience that Mary does not wish to go through. However, Mary does not need to be worried about the physical pains because it is not a must that she must g through because she is different from other cancer patients (Rogers Pilgrim, 2014). She is a lucky patient since her condition has been detected in time. Lastly, Mary will be mentally disturbed because of the stressful conditions to which she will be subjected by the cancer. Having been diagnosed with breast cancer, the patient knows that she will have to spend a lot of time seeking for medical attention. Such a feeling can cause depression to Mary because of the feeling that she will require to use a lot of money to cater for her treatment. Her worries will increase if she imagines that she might be rendered jobless if her condition deteriorates further. Meaning she will have no option rather than depending on her family for financial support. Truly, this is quite disheartening because Mary will lose her autonomy because she can no longer provide for herself. Such a feeling will negatively impact on the cognitive status of the patient (Morse, Salyers lins, 2012). As an adult human being, Mary does not wish to be stereotyped as a bother that cannot fend for herself, but has to rely on the support of well-wishers. How to Address Marys Cognitive, Behavioral, and Psychological Problems For a very long time, many people have been succumbing to cancer. However, one thing that is not taken seriously is that not all these deaths are caused by physical pains. A large number of cancer-related deaths are triggered by psychological and mental distresses. Once a person is diagnosed with cancer, the life drastically changes because of stress. However, Mary should not be allowed to join the list of such people. She should be helped to deal with her condition and manage it well. To do so, the healthcare providers should address the patients physical and psychological needs. Marys problem should be addressed by providing her with holistic healthcare services. Meaning, her care should not be narrowed down to physical, but be extended to psychological. The healthcare provider should be ready to offer her counseling therapy to enable her learn a lot about her condition. During the counseling process, the patient should be told that she is in a better position because her condition has been diagnosed in time (Bogner, et al., 2016). Therefore, she should not think of suffering, stress or death because she can manage it. Conclusion Diagnosis with breast cancer will impact on Marys psychological, cognitive, and behavioral status. She will undergo lots of stress because of the fear that the condition will cause her permanent pain and suffering. This is what many cancer patients go through. However, the patients condition can be managed if provided with psychological support. She should be empowered not be psychologically distressed because breast cancer must not cause all the anticipated problems. If all these issues are addressed during counseling, the patient will be helped to lead a better life. References Bogner, H.R., et al., (2016). Does a Depression Management Program Decrease Mortality in Older Adults with Specific Medical Conditions in Primary Care? An Exploratory Analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(1), pp.126-131. Canvin, K., Rugksa, J., Sinclair, J. Burns, T. (2014). Patient, psychiatrist and family carerexperiences of community treatment orders: qualitative study. Social psychiatry andpsychiatric epidemiology, 49(12), pp.1873-1882. Leontjevas, R., et al., (2013). A structural multidisciplinary approach to depression managementin nursing-home residents: a multicentre, stepped-wedge cluster- randomised trial. TheLancet, 381(9885), pp.2255-2264. Morse, G., Salyers, M. P., lins, A. L. (2012). Burnout in mental health services: a review ofthe problem and its remediation. Adm Policy Mental Health. 39(5):341-52. doi:10.1007/s10488-011-0352-1. Rogers, A. Pilgrim, D. (2014). A sociology of mental health and illness. London: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Report about the Purchasing Management

Question: Write a report about the purchasing management. Answer: Introduction: The purpose of this report is to show the various aspects of the purchasing management with focus on the supplier selection criteria and an extended emphasis on the impact of supply chain of a company with the use of Internet communication Technology (ICT). For the purpose of supplier selection it has been defined whether single sourcing or multiple sourcing is appropriate for the selected company. The associated purchasing cost related to the various equipments has also been determined. The purchasing portfolio management has been prespared on the basis of Peter Karlijic model. The analysis shows the various types of leverage items, strategic items, non-critical items and bottleneck items which are directly influencing the purchasing activities of a company. The final of the report also suggests the rationale for selecting activity based costing versus total cost ownership (Monczka et al., 2015). The company selected for the purpose of study is Toyota Motor Corporation. The company was started in the year 1936. The basic model of the car started with production of AA model of cars. The leading Japanese carmaker id known for being one of the 13th largest companies on the world in terms of revenue and it had earned itself a reputation of producing more than ten million car models in a very short span of 12 years. The main competition is faced by companies such as General Motors, Ford, Honda and Volkswagen. Toyota has a reputation of application of lean manufacturing system into its entire production of the materials. The main supply of the company is controlled through tier 1 and tier 2 suppliers. The tier 1 suppliers are responsible for providing the primary part of the cars such as chassis and engines. The tier 2 includes the suppliers are responsible for supplying of those materials which are required for the required for the purpose of assembling (Hines, 2015). Rationale for selecting the suppliers The multiple sourcing criteria of the company involve the participation of both tier and tier 2 suppliers. As it has been discussed previously that tier 1 supplier are responsible for supplying of the primary car parts such as engines and chassis and the tier 2 suppliers engage in providing the parts such as crankshaft, spark plugs, valve and sump. These parts are necessary to furnish the tier 1 parts of the car. The Toyota Engineering and Manufacturing North America is one of the most prominent suppliers of the company. The suppliers focus on getting the purchasing policies and the gui9delines provided in the policies help the suppliers to know about the basic principles of purchasing ion North America, assisting the suppliers to increase the competitiveness in the auto manufacturing industry and engaging in long term relationship. The long-term relationship is maintained through annual purchasing policy and supplier support system. (Welcome to ToyotaSupplier.com, 2016). According to Verma (2014), the rationale for the selection of the suppliers is based on the following criteria: Importance of the new suppliers: The process of identification of the suppliers should involve the evaluation cost effectiveness than the existing suppliers. The recognition of the new suppliers should be based on the reasons based on the buyers and internal customers for procurement of the products. Qualification screening process: The supplier has to qualify through various types of tests such as delivery performance, contracts terms, and resolving of the various problems. The financial status also needs to be checked based not the supplier rating. The availability of the surge capacity also influencer the selection criteria of the suppliers. Quality: The needs to adhere to various types of quality aspects such as ISO 9000 certification and similar. In case of any discrepancy related to quality issue the suppliers organization needs to verify thoroughly. Information requests to suppliers: After the identification of the suppliers the request for information helps in identifying the buyers need and buyer also gain the knowledge about the types of the products which a supplier can provide. The request for proposal consists of the performance requirements details, which describes the potential strength and flexibility to understand the composition of particular material. Contract terms: The contract term states how a buyer will pay to the suppliers, the choice of a particular contract term may be long term, short term, fixed cost and cost plus basis. The payment terms in the contract specifies about the various form of contractual obligations. The payment of the various parts of the car can have fixed price, which states that the supplier will be paid irrespective of the actual cost of execution of the contractual agreements. In case of cost plus agreement the criteria for payment can be based on a certain fixed percentage and total cost incurred. Selection of the suppliers: Based on the supplier rating and contract terms, the appropriate suppliers need to be selected who can provide take and orders and meet the delivery within the required set of time. Supplier monitoring: The surveillance of the various activities of the suppliers can range from weeks to years. The monitoring criteria have several aims such as ensuring higher quality, accurate conformity of the specifications and monitoring for the purpose of cist containment. Issues faced in selection of the suppliers: In several cases while selection of the supplier based on the quality it has been observed that certification documents are misleading and tampered. This adds to the complexity of the buyers in assessing the capabilities of the supplier. These further raises the need to check the materials based on the specifications and when the buyers act on behalf of internal customers. The negotiation process to between the buyers and supplier often act as a major hurdle in the selection of the supplier and buyer, the main problem arises when the company attempts to induce the favorable terms to the suppliers and in similar way the supplier attempts to induce the price from the buyers. This leads to one sided benefit and paves the way for numerous conflicts in the future (Jahani et al., 2015). Karljic Model The Karljic model for purchasing helps to analyze the purchasing portfolio of a company. This particular model shows the working methods of the purchasing department. The two main dimensions of the portfolio focuses on the profit impact based on the strategic importance of the materials and risks related to supply of the materials. The supply risk is mainly associated to the abundance or scarcity of the materials and to what extent the materials are up to date in terms of technological innovations and requirements of substitution (Knight Preston, 2014). Figure 1: Karljic Purchasing Portfolio (Source: Artzblog.com, 2016) ICT for purchasing operations Some of the most noted initiatives by the company include the incorporation of data communication module in the broader range of vehicles. The changes are due to be implemented from the year 2017. The net result of this facility will connect the cars of the Toyota with cellular telecommunications networks, which will further expand the opportunity for the ability to transmit information for various types of products and services. The purchasing manager of the company is responsible for assuring the quality aspect of the company (Information Technology for Toyota_Motor (TM), 2016) Purchasing Goals and suggestions for improvement The main purchasing goal and suggestion for improvement has been shown below as follows: Analysis of purchasing Goals Recommendations Providing safe, reliable and economic mode of transportation. Use of industrial robots for the purpose of manufacturing of the cars. This will automate the process of lifting of heavy items from place to place. Assembling of the parts, joining and paint job. The industrial robots ensure high level of safety thereby by reducing the labor cost to a significant amount (Mori et al., 2012). Addressing customer concerns and innovating in terms of reinventing through sufficient information disclosure. Improving the customer satisfaction level by addressing to the customer enquiries through websites, blogs and emails. Holistic view of development by contributing to the local communities with an open stance towards the new suppliers and focusing on growth based on mutually beneficial business dealings with the distributors and the suppliers. Promotion of local purchasing in e-newspapers, blogs and other forms of electronic media. This can be also achieved by establishing sales network through vendor sourcing and enterprise resource planning. Development of environmental friendly vehicles and technologies for continuous improvement of the same. Use internal combustion engine and introduction electric motors in the car models will enable the company to produce hybrid models of cars. The technology of ethanol car by using renewable fuel will significantly improve the environmental aspect of the cars (Klckner et al., 2013). Reducing the no. of defect related to the accelerators of the car, also ensuring the reduction in the error rate in the manufacturing process. In order to ensure this goal the company needs to incorporate six- sigma and automate the process of error detection. The main focus of the internet communications technology is seen in integration of the core functional areas with the enterprise resource planning through software systems. The purchasing is a four stage process in Toyota Motor Corporations. Unique codes are assigned to clients, purchasing organizations and plants. This shows the flow of purchasing decisions among all the levels of the organization. The changes in the inventory and procurement activity are updated real time through this software. The purchasing operations are manages seamlessly with the help of ERP software. (SAP, Toyota InfoTechnology Center and VeriFone Connect Cars and Provide Drivers With Simplified Fueling. 2014). Figure 2 Source: (Appelrath Ritter 2013) Purchasing cost analysis The purchasing goals have been analyzed and it has been observed that the best cost analysis techniques for the purpose of the cost analysis the Toyota Motor Corporation is Activity Based costing system. Activity based costing system is the translation process of the indirect costs into the direct costs by tracking of the appropriate cost drivers associated with the indirect costs. As Toyota involves large number of activities in different segments of the manufacturing process, the cost is driven by pool of activities. This particular mode of costing will help the company in evaluating batch level activities, unit-level activities, facility costs and product level expenses. The unit level expenses are most relevant with volume produce d in units. These costs are typically the supplies and materials. The product level activities are specific to particular parts of the cars. These costs are in line with various types of the engineering activities performed by the company. This particular method of costing will prove to be helpful in formulation various types of pricing strategies, services and performance evaluation of the costing system of the company. The first instances of the cost are considered as the cost arising as a result of the functional categories and departmental activities of the various types of business process. The challenging part of this costing system lies in determining the cost drivers are associated with the cost drivers. The observed drivers are used to connect the activities to customers, cost objects and products. The use of ABC system in the Toyota motor corporation will ensure the disclosure of low-volume products which tend to be more expensive while computing them with the traditional system of costing (Pazarceviren Ozsuer, 2015). This form of costing system is the most effective form of costing system for identifying the planned activities before implementing it into the business process. The desired actions can be taken onto consideration for the explicit line of the managers based on the activity based costing system. Moreover the present Kaizen system of the costing of the various purchasing items are similar to the ABC costing system and thus the implementation of the change process will cost effective and considerably time consuming process for the company (Martin, 2016). The comparison of the Kaizen system of costing and activity based costing has been shown below as follows: Figure 3: Comparison of the Kaizen system of costing and activity based costing Source: (Song Yi, 2015) Conclusion The extensive of the report stets the various factors that act as the rationale for selection of the suppliers at Toyota. The presence of Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers suggests that the most appropriate method of costing will be effective for multiple sourcing of the suppliers. In this way the company will able to improve the procurement process from multiple sources of the suppliers. The issues relating to the forges quality certificate given by many suppliers is another raising concern for the company which needs to looked after. The Karljic Purchasing Portfolio clearly shows the profit impact of the company based on the supply risk. The latter part of the report shows the implementation of the Internet communication technology for the improvement of the purchasing goals of the company has been clearly stated ion the report. The integration of the purchasing department with the SAP systems software shows the real time updating of the purchasing activities of the company. The final pa rt of the report shows an overview of the present system of the costing based on the Kaizen Model and also gives recommendation for implementation activity based costing system. The report also shows a detailed comparison between the two costing systems. Reference List Appelrath, H. J., Ritter, J. (2013). SAP R/3 implementation: methods and tools. Springer Science Business Media. Artzblog.com. (2016). Retrieved 16 June 2016 Hines, P. (2015). Toyota supplier system in Japan and the UK. Developments in Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Past, Present and Future, 113. Information Technology for Toyota_Motor (TM). (2016). Wikinvest.com. Retrieved 16 June 2016, Jahani, A., Azmi Murad, M. A., bin Sulaiman, M. N., Selamat, M. H. (2015). An agent-based supplier selection framework. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 8(2/3), 180-205. doi:10.1108/SO-01-2015-0003 Klckner, C. A., Nayum, A., Mehmetoglu, M. (2013). Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 21, 32-38. Knight, L., Tu, Y. H., Preston, J. (2014). Integrating skills profiling and purchasing portfolio management: An opportunity for building purchasing capability. International Journal of Production Economics, 147, 271-283. Martin, J. (2016). Activity-Based Costing and Japanese Cost Management. Maaw.info. Retrieved 16 June 2016, Monczka, R., Handfield, R., Giunipero, L., Patterson, J. (2015). Purchasing and supply chain management. Cengage Learning. Monczka, R., Handfield, R., Giunipero, L., Patterson, J. (2015). Purchasing and supply chain management. Cengage Learning. Mori, M., MacDorman, K. F., Kageki, N. (2012). The uncanny valley [from the field]. Robotics Automation Magazine, IEEE, 19(2), 98-100. Pazarceviren, S. Y., Akcin, O., Ozsuer, U. (2015). A MODEL SUGGESTION FOR BUDGETING ACTIVITY COST REDUCTION UNDER ACTIVITY BASED KAIZEN BUDGETING APPROACH. European Scientific Journal.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Battle of Makin in World War II

Battle of Makin in World War II The Battle of Makin was fought November 20-24, 1943, during World War II (1939-1945). With the end of the fighting on Guadalcanal, Allied forces began planning for a march across the Pacific. Selecting the Gilbert Islands as the first target, planning moved forward for landings on several islands including Tarawa and Makin Atoll. Moving forward in November 1943, American troops landed on the island and succeeded in overwhelming the Japanese garrison. Though the landing force sustained relatively light casualties, the cost of taking Makin increased when the escort carrier USS Liscome Bay was torpedoed and lost with 644 of its crew. Background On December 10, 1941, three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces occupied Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands. Meeting no resistance, they secured the atoll and commenced construction of a seaplane base on the main island of Butaritari. Due to its location, Makin was well positioned for such an installation as it would extend Japanese reconnaissance abilities closer to American-held islands. Construction progressed over the next nine months and Makins small garrison remained largely ignored by Allied forces. This changed on August 17, 1942, when the Butaritari came under attack from Colonel Evans Carlsons 2nd Marine Raider Battalion (Map). Landing from two submarines, Carlsons 211-man force killed 83 of Makins garrison and destroyed the islands installations before withdrawing. In the wake of the attack, the Japanese leadership made moves to reinforce the Gilbert Islands. This saw the arrival on Makin of a company from the 5th Special Base Force and the construction of more formidable defenses. Overseen by Lieutenant (j.g.) Seizo Ishikawa, the garrison numbered around 800 men of which about half were combat personnel. Working through the next two months, the seaplane base was completed as were anti-tank ditches towards the eastern and western ends of Butaritari. Within the perimeter defined by the ditches, numerous strong points were established and coastal defense guns mounted (Map). Allied Planning Having won the Battle of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands, the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz desired to make a thrust into the central Pacific. Lacking the resources to strike directly at the Marshall Islands in the heart of the Japanese defenses, he instead began making plans for attacks in the Gilberts. These would be the opening steps of an island hopping strategy to advance towards Japan. Another advantage of campaigning in the Gilberts was the islands were within range of U.S. Army Air Forces B-24 Liberators based in the Ellice Islands. On July 20, plans for invasions of Tarawa, Abemama, and Nauru were approved under the code name Operation Galvanic (Map). As planning for the campaign moved forward, Major General Ralph C. Smiths 27th Infantry Division received orders to prepare for the invasion of Nauru. In September, these orders were changed as Nimitz grew concerned about being able to provide the needed naval and air support at Nauru. As such, the 27ths objective was changed to Makin. To take the atoll, Smith planned two sets of landings on Butaritari. The first waves would land at Red Beach on the islands western end with the hope of drawing the garrison in that direction. This effort would be followed a short time later by landings at Yellow Beach to the east. It was Smiths plan that the Yellow Beach forces could destroy the Japanese by attacking their rear (Map). Battle of Makin Conflict: World War II (1939-1945)Dates: November 20-23, 1943Forces Commanders:AlliesMajor General Ralph C. SmithRear Admiral Richmond K. Turner6,470 menJapaneseLieutenant (j.g.) Seizo Ishikawa400 soldiers, 400 Korean laborersCasualties:Japanese: approx. 395 killedAllies: 66 killed, 185 wounded/injured Allied Forces Arrive Departing Pearl Harbor on November 10, Smiths division was carried on the attack transports USS Neville, USS Leonard Wood, USS Calvert, USS Pierce, and USS Alcyone. These sailed as part of Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turners Task Force 52 which included the escort carriers USS Coral Sea, USS Liscome Bay, and USS Corregidor. Three days later, USAAF B-24s commenced attacks on Makin flying from bases in the Ellice Islands. As Turners task force arrived in the area, the bombers were joined by FM-1 Wildcats, SBD Dauntlesses, and TBF Avengers flying from the carriers. At 8:30 AM on November 20, Smiths men commenced their landings on Red Beach with forces centered on the 165th Infantry Regiment. M3 Stuart light tanks on Makin, November, 1943. US Army Fighting for the Island Meeting little resistance, American troops quickly pressed inland. Though encountering a few snipers, these efforts failed to draw Ishikawas men from their defenses as planned. Approximately two hours later, the first troops approached Yellow Beach and soon came under fire from Japanese forces. While some came ashore without issue, other landing craft grounded offshore forcing their occupants to wade 250 yards to reach the beach. Led by the 165ths 2nd Battalion and supported by M3 Stuart light tanks from the 193rd Tank Battalion, the Yellow Beach forces began engaging the islands defenders. Unwilling to emerge from their defenses, the Japanese forced Smiths men to systematically reduce the islands strong points one by one over the next two days. USS Liscome Bay (CVE-56), September 1943. Public Domain Aftermath On the morning of November 23, Smith reported that Makin had been cleared and secured. In the fighting, his ground forces sustained 66 killed and 185 wounded/injured while inflicting around 395 killed on the Japanese. A relatively smooth operation, the invasion of Makin proved far less costly than the battle on Tarawa which occurred over the same time span. The victory at Makin lost a bit of its luster on November 24 when Liscome Bay was torpedoed by I-175. Striking a supply of bombs, the torpedo caused the ship to explode and killed 644 sailors. These deaths, plus casualties from a turret fire on USS Mississippi (BB-41), caused U.S. Navy losses to total 697 killed and 291 wounded.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

A History of the Supreme Court Including Some Landmark Case Decisions essays

A History of the Supreme Court Including Some Landmark Case Decisions essays Since the American Constitution was the first written constitution in the world, it created an entire wealth of laws and interpretations for the newly formed government. From 1787 until the mid-nineteenth century, the Supreme Court had to create policies and procedures while it heard cases. It literally had to "define itself" (Davis). While the founding fathers created a court system in 1787, it took until 1789 to truly define it and set up the basic system of the courts, which includes district courts and circuit courts. Historian Davis continues, "Three circuits, consisting of one district court judge and two Supreme Court justices, heard criminal cases and civil suits as well as appeals from the district courts" (Davis). Thus, the system was very different than it is today, where Supreme Court judges only rule on cases that have made it through the layers of district and state courts underneath them. In addition, Supreme Court justices were appointed to hold office as long as they had "good behavior" (Semonche 24), and that has always meant for "life" in the interpretation of the Court. Historian Semonche continues, "From the very beginning, then, the Court was charged with maintaining the national authority and, with it, the Union itself" (Semonche 40). That tradition continues today, with the word of the Supreme Court the final ruling in the courts of the nation. The original Court consisted of six judges, which was raised to seven in 1807, because of a growing population, and rose to nine in 1837, and ten during the Civil War. The Court dropped back to eight justices in 1866, and up to nine in 1869, the number that still rule today. Historian Davis notes, "Today, the Court oversees 13 Courts of Appeal (Circuit Courts) and 94 District Courts in 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the territories of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands. These courts, along with specialized legi...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Crime Data Sources Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Crime Data Sources - Assignment Example For UCR program, crime data is collected in two ways: traditional summary reporting and National Incident-Based Reporting held at state level where all local agencies report to their respective state UCR programs. These two methods capture data from a myriad of primary and secondary sources. Information acquired is accessible to the public, researchers and the media on the existing crime levels in the US. The UCR is vital in key policy issues as it captures data for multiple years on different crimes (FBI, nd). These surveys collect data on a sample representative of the nation on personal and domestic victimization in the US. The survey has been ongoing from its inception in 1973. The sample size is estimated at 40000 households with an average population of 75000 where each household is surveyed twice in the year the household is selected, but a household can be interviewed for a period more than one year but not exceeding 3 years and limited to 7 interviews (BSJ, nd). The surveys target to gather information about crimes and their consequences; estimate unreported crimes; provide measures to curb selected crimes; and allow comparisons between different geographical areas over time. The survey is important as it provides data used to estimate probability of victimization for the population as a whole plus other interest segments like racial groups, geographical locations etc. NCVS also provides a national platform for victims to describe the effects of crime and profile violent offenders. These surveys are sponsored by the justice department through the Bureau of Justice statistics (Fisher& Lab, 2010). The international victimization survey provides worldwide information on crime victimization, allowing for contrast and evaluation between countries. The survey is administered by the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) and aspires to set the standard for victimization reporting. The survey is conducted through

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Hinduism & Jainism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Hinduism & Jainism - Essay Example In Jainism, no practices of food are offered to God or the divine. Consequently, Hindus give offerings of gift and materialistic needs for the divine. Rituals and traditions of sacrifices also differ in both religions. Since Hinduism is more focused on sacrifice, the focus of sacrificing animals is prevalent in Hinduism. In Jainism, this form of practice is refuted and discouraged. As mentioned above, the theory of salvation and afterlife is quite essential in both religions. While the Hindus believe that only God can truly achieve salvation, Jainism insists that humans are the only creation that can reach that level of state. Karma is another focal point that differentiates the two religions. Salvation is another crucial concept in which both religions tend to have differences. Hindus believe that Gods can only achieve salvation. However, the Jainas consider this privilege of human beings only. While Hindus regard Karma as an invisible power, Jainas think that it is something that c omes from â€Å"within.† Clearly, both religions share many similarities but also possess many

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Summary Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Summary - Assignment Example The authors work with Elizabeth Brainerd is based on two hypotheses. Firstly, competitive industries do not have discrimination, so in case of an exogenous shock (increased trade) the effect of discrimination is negligible. Secondly, in less competitive industries, scope of discrimination is more, so in case of the same exogenous shock narrowing the gender wage gap would be considerable. Since theoretically, the wage differential in competitive industries is nil, by providing for increased trade, the authors could compute the gender wage gap in concentrated industries. The survey covering the period 1977-94 used data from Current Population Survey. The population comprised of individuals aged 18 to 64 and working as full time. First log wage of all individuals was regressed on education, age, agesqaured and nonwhite dummy variable. Then the residual gender wage gap was computed from difference in average residual wages for male and female at industry level. The industry level results were matched to trade level results, with trade measured as import shares. The findings show that an increase in import share leads to reduction in gender wage gap in concentrated industries. However overall increase in trade have a negative impact on relative wages of women. These results can also be factored on decline in unionization and not discrimination impact.